citect scada software training and manual pdf
citect scada training developer of the Citect SCADA system is the Australian company Ci Technologies ( Ci – Control Instrumentation ). Citect is a software package based on the extensive experience of a company that has been a system integrator for over 20 years.
The experience of system integration is invested not only in the software itself, but also in the “knowledge base”, which was embodied in help- functions, as well as in the know-how in solving problems related to the 300 PLCs supported by this package.
When purchasing a SCADA package, the initial investment is usually quite high. Moreover, the development environment, as a rule, is much more expensive than the runtime environment. Surprisingly, Ci Technologies offers its users a development system for free , while the price of the execution system is comparable to other SCADA packages.
One of the characteristics of Citect is flexibility , which comes in several ways. First, for Citect, the distributed application development mode is natural .
Secondly, in Citect laid great diversity of approaches to application development . So, it is possible to develop applications without programming at all based on the supplied libraries of graphic objects, templates, drivers, etc. It is possible to develop applications using programming to a greater or lesser extent. At the same time, depending on the professional skills of the developer, an application can be created both using the Citect package language , called Cicode , or more familiar traditional programming languages ( Visual Basic , C ).
Sometimes it is difficult to provide a detailed topology of the project with the distribution of functionality among the nodes. The Citect provides a simple build-up of additional project components and the redistribution of their functions. These procedures are performed during the configuration of each node.
The above features of this package are especially important when the SCADA package is used for the first time, since they do not require large financial investments, on the one hand, and on the other hand, they allow you to analyze all the capabilities of the system (not demo versions!).
2. Technical capabilities of the system
Citect is used as a 32-bit Windows NT , Windows 95 and 98 application. Data collection, alarm generation,and trending can occur concurrently with editing and compiling. The core of the package is a real-time preemptive multitasking core.
2.1. Real time database
For each new project, Citect automatically creates a file structure in the format. dbf . About 60 files are initialized to store the data for each project. Each task of the project has its own file (for example, a file of discrete alarms , a file of analog alarms , a file of project variables, a file of graphic pages, etc.). These files can be separately imported into Excel for editing or documentation.
2.2. Citect client-server architecture
citect scada training is focused on the implementation of the client-server architecture and has five functional modules (servers or clients):
- I / O – I / O server. Provides data transfer between physical I / O devices and other Citect modules ;
- Display is a visualization client . Provides an operator interface: displaying data from other Citect modules and controlling the execution of operator commands;
- Alarms is an alarm server . Tracks data, compares it with acceptable limits, verifies that specified conditions are met, and displays alarms on the appropriate visualization node;
- Reports is a report server. Generates reports after a certain time, when a certain event occurs, or at the request of an operator;
- Trends is a trend server. Collects and registers trend information, allowing you to record the development of the process in real time or retrospectively in a trend window or in a file.
Each Citect functional module is executed as a separate task, regardless of whether the modules are executed on the same computer or on different ones . Therefore, Citect allows you to build architectures of varying complexity. citect scada training simplest architecture consists of one computer (node) on which all modules run. If in large application systems this node becomes overloaded, then the servers ( I / O , Alarms , Trends , Reports ) can be installed on different nodes. And if the I / O server task overloads the node, then you can increase the number of I / O servers. All rendering nodes can access all servers via the network.Citect supports NetBIOS , TCP / IP and other network protocols. Several protocols can be executed at the same time.
citect scada training supports hardware and configurable alarms .
Hardware alarms are designed to inform the operator about malfunctions that occur in the control system devices (controllers, input-output modules, communication channels, etc.).
Alarms caused by deviations of technological parameters beyond the permissible limits, malfunction of technological equipment must be pre-configured. The Citect systemallows you to configure alarms by individual variables, by groups of variables, by expressions, by calculation results, etc. There are four types of configurable alarms :
- digital alarms that occur in response to a change in state;
- analog alarms , based on the analysis of going beyond the specified upper and lower limits, deviation from the norm, exceeding the rate of change limits;
- Time- stamped alarms are based on a timer that runs in the controller and records alarms with millisecond precision. A time stamp is commonly used to study alarming situations where a number of alarms occur simultaneously . The time stamp can be used to identify the sequence in which the alarms occurred ;
- compound alarms resulting from a combination of events.
The Cicode programming language supports a simple set of operators that can be used to generate a report and define its template. Typically, reports are generated at certain points in time, set by timers and counters. You can also define an event that triggers the generation of a report and a user privilege level that determines the user’s rights to start generating reports. You can also generate reports in Excel using DDE links. The Citect there are e-mail, according to which reports are sent.
Another distinctive feature of Citect is that duplication is provided among the standard functions. An I / O server can be duplicated with a redundant I / O server running the same application. If the primary server fails, the backup server continues to operate without any loss of information.
Trends, reports and alarms servers can also be duplicated . Duplication is also possible at the network level. This is done by installing two network cards in the computer and organizing duplicated communication with the controllers.
The Computer setup utility allows you to configure your computer as a visualization node (client), primary or backup I / O server, alarm , trend or report server . It also allows you to configure timing and disable certain keys.
2.6. language Cicode
The Citect built a flexible programming language Cicode , comparable as possible with the languages Pascal , the C . It is on it that the SCADA system itself is written . Cicode allows you to create programs of any complexity. The Cicode language supports, for example, 40 operators for managing alarms , 19 operators for working with files, 18 SQL functions, 50 operators for organizing work with trends, and many others. The Cicode source file is created by the editor and compiled with the project.
The project is always compiled with the runtime system. During compilation, all dbf files are checked, Cicode is translated .
During system execution, a special kernel can be activated, which supports commands for monitoring controllers and network interactions, checking CPU load, checking for errors, etc
2.7. HMI capabilities in Citect
Graphical objects on operator displays can be built using the Graphics Builder . Citect supports an unlimited number of windows – “pages”. To create them, it is proposed to use a library of templates. To simplify the creation of graphic objects, three libraries are supplied on the page – objects, genies and super genes . Objects are static pictures classified into groups such as machinery, tanks, pumps, etc. Gins and supergins are dynamic objects, various variables can be attached to them.
Often, when developing a graphical interface, you have to create typical groups of objects designed to solve a specific problem.
For example, a group of three objects (START button, STOP button and status indicator – green / red light) is designed to start / stop a pump, electric motor, etc. with indication of their status. Then each time to solve this problem, the developer will have to create these three objects and configure them (set properties).
But there can be many such tasks on one graphic page. Obviously, the specialist’s time in this case will be spent ineffectively. To solve similar problems Citectoffers a mechanism called gin. Several related objects are combined into a group, the group is saved in the genie library, which is similar to the object library.
The genie can be manipulated as a single object (it can be copied, moved, scaled, etc.).
Now it will take much less time to solve the above problem. You just need to select the required genie from the library and insert it into the graphic page.
With the help of a superjin , the same mechanism is implemented, but only in relation to a whole page rather than a group of objects.
Objects such as genes and super genes help save disk space on a computer, as only one copy is stored in its memory.
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